From the era of reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the united states underwent an economic transformation marked by the maturing of the industrial economy, the rapid expansion of big business, the development of large-scale agriculture, and the rise of national labor unions and. After overthrowing the centuries-old romanov monarchy, russia emerged from a civil war in 1921 as the newly formed soviet union the world's first marxist-communist state would become one of the. the american civil war created the nation of the united states as we know it today the bloodiest war in the history of the nation, the victory was a combination of many factors and many battles that finally resulted in a union victory.
The american economy was caught in transition on the eve of the civil war what had been an almost purely agricultural economy in 1800 was in the first stages of an industrial revolution which would result in the united states becoming one of the world's leading industrial powers by 1900. Chapters 18 & 19 notes and questions what are the causes of rapid industrialization after the civil war analyze the role of the railroads, government and new technology analyze the impact industrialization has on american culture and society analyze the rise of big business and the role of robber barons (captains of industry) in the late 19th century. The rapid shift from an agrarian to industrial economy and the growth of the business sector, with their attendant social and economic dislocations, spurred the development of a powerful ideology in which private and public spheres were considered antithetical.
The rapid industrialization of the united states after the civil war changed the face of america and made this nation into and economic and military powerhouse in the world in this journal i want you to consider the human costs of industrialization. The period after the civil war was marked by increasing intense and pervasive industrialization and successive technological advances like the railroad, telegraph & telephone, and internal combustion engine. Business and industrialization centered on the cities the ever increasing number of factories created an intense need for labor, convincing people in rural areas to move to the city, and drawing immigrants from europe to the united states as a result, the united states transformed from an agrarian.
The pre-civil war years (1820-1860, or the antebellum years) were among the most chaotic in american history—a time of significant changes that took place as the united states came of age during these years, the nation was transformed from an underdeveloped nation of farmers and. The second industrial revolution, also known as the technological revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. In the decades following the civil war, the united states emerged as an industrial giant old industries expanded and many new ones, including petroleum refining, steel manufacturing, and electrical power, emerged railroads expanded significantly, bringing even remote parts of the country into a. Pre-civil war american culture at the end of the 18th century, the united states had few professional writers or artists and lacked a class of patrons to subsidize the arts but during the decades before the civil war, distinctively american art and literature emerged. In the months after the civil war, republicans in congress became frustrated when a southern states enacted black codes that restricted the freedom of the former slaves b democrats lobbied for black male suffrage.
Industrial progress in a nation the size of the united states would have been difficult without the unifying influence of a transcontinental railroad system at the end of the civil war, most of the existing railroad operations were short lines serving a limited territory. The history of the united states from 1865 until 1918 covers the reconstruction era, the gilded age, and the progressive era, and includes the rise of industrialization and the resulting surge of immigration in the united states. Eric foner, the dewitt clinton professor of history at columbia university, is the author of numerous books on the civil war and reconstruction his most recent book, the fiery trial: abraham lincoln and american slavery (2010), has received the pulitzer, bancroft, and lincoln prizes. Industrialization and urbanization began long before the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but it accelerated greatly during this period because of technological innovations, social changes, and a political system increasingly apt to favor economic growth beyond any other concern.
After the civil war, american industry changed dramatically machines replaced hand labor as the main means of manufacturing, increasing the production capacity of industries inventors developed new products the public wanted, and businesses made the products in large quantities. In the years following the american civil war (1861 - 1865), the twin pillars of capitalism and industrialization catapulted the american economy to the forefront of world commerce oil, steel, rail, mining, and agricultural industries all enjoyed tremendous growth in the latter part of the nineteenth century as americans harvested the riches. In the aftermath of the civil war and reconstruction, the american economy grew considerably as it entered the second industrial revolution, generally recognized as the period between 1870 and 1914.
Eventually, the increase in cost of living after the civil war, coupled with the rising number of large corporations that decreased wages, lead industrial laborers to organize into unions in 1866, the first national coalition of these unions was founded—the national labor union. The years of industrial expansion after the civil war brought significant changes to american society the country became increasingly urban, and cities grew not only in terms of population but also in size, with skyscrapers pushing cities upward and new transportation systems extending them outward.